今年的讲座名为“Paralinguistic Features of Languages”，主题是辅助语言学，对于英语专业的学生来说，这个话题或许没有专门学过，但并不陌生。讲座类的内容非常突出的特点就是逻辑性强，思路很清晰，所以在听音频做笔记的时候，要特别注意总起性质的句子。一般来说lecture的第一段会对接下来的内容做总结介绍，如果下文划分成若干个小类别，会概括性地提到这些类别，然后在后文进行详细的例证、再分类。第一段对给考生一个宏观性的思路非常重要，听漏掉一两点也没关系，下文必然会重新提到。
Paralinguistic features of languages
Good morning, everyone. Today we'll continue our discussion on describing language. Last week we examined such features of language as grammar, vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc. In this lecture, we'll look at another important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this important aspect of language. Let me tell you. It refers to features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar and vocabulary. They are called ‘paralinguistic features of language'. These features fall into two broad categories: those that involve voice and those that involve the body.
Now, the first category, is what we call vocal paralinguistic features. Vocal features are actually tones of voice. While they are, perhaps, not central to meaning in communication in the same way as grammar or vocabulary, they may, nevertheless, convey attitude or intention in some way. Let me give you some examples. The first is whispering, which indicates the needs for secrecy. The second is breathiness. This is to show deep emotion. The third is huskiness, which is to show unimportants. The fourth is nasality. This is to indicate anxiety. The last is extra lip-rounding, which expresses greater intimacy, expecially with babies, for example. So we can see that there are a number of ways of altering our tone of voice. And when we do this consciously, we do it to create different effects in communication.
Now, let's come to the second category, physical paralinguistic features, which involves the body. In addition to convey meanings with tone of voice, we can also express our intentions through the ways in which we use our bodies. You may ask: what are the ways, then? Let me sight some brief examples. The expression on our face, the gestures we make and even proximity or way we sit, are some of the ways we send powerful messages. About how we feel, or what we mean. Let me explain some of these in more detail. First, facial expression. Facial expression is a powerful conveyer of meaning. We all know smiling is an almost universal signal of pleasure or welcome. But there are other facial expressions that may not be so common. For instance, raising eye-brows - suggest that you are surprised or interested in something. Other facial actions, such as biting your lip, which indicates that you are deep in thinking, or are uncertain about something; compressing the lips, which show that you are making decisions; and a visible clenching of the teeth, to show that you are angry, are all powerful conveyers of meaning, too. The second in this category is gesture. You see, we use gesture to indicate a wide range of meanings. Though I have to emphasize that the actual gestures we use may be specific to particular cultures. That is to say different cultures have their own favorite gestures in conveying meaning. Here, a few examples may show you how powerful gestures can be. In British English behavior, shrugging shoulders may indicate an attitude of ‘I don't care', or ‘I don't know'. Crossing your arms may indicate relaxation. But it can also powerfully show you are bored. Waving can mean welcome and farewell. While scratching your head may indicate that you are at a loss. In other cultures, placing your hand upon your heart is to indicate that you are telling the truth. Pointing your finger at your nose means it's a secret. That's why we say that gestures are culture bound. The third is proximity, posture and echoing. Proximity refers to the physical distance between speakers. This can indicate a number of things and can also be used to consciously send messages about intent. Closeness, for example, indicates intimacy or threat to many speakers. But distance may show formality, or lack of interest. Once again, I'd like to say, proximity is also both a matter of personal style, and is often culture bound. So, what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another. And standing close to someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party, but completely out of place in other situations, such as a meeting with a superior. Next, posture. Posture means the way in which someone holds his or her body, especially the back, shoulders and head, when standing, walking or sitting. A few examples. Hunched shoulders and a hanging head give a powerful indication of whether the person is happy or not. A lowered head when speaking to a superior, with or without eye contact can convey the appropriate relationship in some cultures. On the other hand, direct level eye contact, changes the nature of interaction, and can been seen as either open or challenging. Last, echoing. Now, what is echoing? Let me start with an example. Some of you may have noticed this phenomenon in your experience. When two people are keen to agree each other, they would likely, though unconsciously adopt the same posture, as if an imitation of each other. They sit or stand in the same manner. When used in this way, echoing appears to complement the verbal communication. Of course, when such imitation is carried out consciously, it often indicates that someone is mocking at another speaker.
Ok, in today's lecture, we looked at some paralinguistic features, such as tone of voice, gesture and posture. These features, together with linguistic features of language, like grammar, or vocabulary, are all part of the way we communicate with each other in face to face encounters. In our next lecture, we'll watch some video material, and see how people actually use paralinguistic means in communication to express their intention or desire or mood.